The Thirteenth Century

The header for each year is preceded with an @ sign to facilitate searching



`The most famous poem about romantic love was Romance of the Rose, which was widely read throughout Europe from the 13th century to the 15th. In the form of an allegory, it was written by a poet of the Loire Valley, Guillaumede Loriss, who died before he could complete the work.'[1]


Rise of Polynesian chiefdoms.


There is reference to a Ralph, Prior of Pilton at about this time.[2][cf:1218 Wearesins de Pileton?]


Roger de Branscombe, probably born before 1200. [cf:1218 husband of Juliana. Could he have been known also as Roger de Sege? cf:1238]









3 December: Charter of Henry, Bishop of Exeter, granting exemption of tithes to the abbot and convent of Montebourg, regarding their lands at Exmouth. Dated and signed in Branscombe by William de Swindon, Magistro H. de Wiltshire and Canon of Exeter, Magistro William de Calne, and others.[3]


Loss of Normandy.



The introduction of the office of mayor to Exeter occurred no later than 1205. It was the third city in England to appoint a mayor, after London and Winchester. With the demise of the merchant guilds, the regulating functions it would normally have performed devolved on the city court, and in the rolls of this court, along with deeds, recognisances of debt and other memoranda, were entered the admissions of new citizens to the Exeterfreedom.


Peter "priest and chaplain", builder of the new Bridge, dies before its completion (1176-1209). He had been replaced (due to old age) as director of works in 1201 by a Frenchman, Isembert, "master of the Saintes schools", and the personal choice of King monarchsJohn.[4]


In the reign of King John, there had been as many as twenty-eight little sandstone churches in Exeter City. But in 1646, an ordnance of Parliament resulted in all but four (St.Petrock, St.Mary Major, St.Mary Arches and St.Edmund) being sold, or used as burying places, or as schools.[5]



Mongols under Ghenghis Khan begin conquest of Asia.







The new Bridge;, begun in 1176, is completed.













15 June: Magna Carta signed and sealed by King monarchsJohn at Runnymede.


`A document held to be the cornerstone of democratic governments in Britain, the U.S.A., and Commonwealth.'



Reign of King John ends (since 1199). monarchsHenry III ascends the throne (to 1272).


`Henry was an extravagant patron of the arts. His expensive building projects included the re-building of Westminster Abbey; between 1245 and his death in 1272, in the "Rayonnant" style.'[6]


After the daeth of John, the French decided to seize the English throne. The Dauphine entered Hertford Castle after laying seige to it.



Matthew Paris, monk & historian, enters the monastery of St.Albans. He becomes an expert in writing, drawing and painting and in the artistic working of gold and silver. He probably died in 1259.



`The assize of mort d'ancestor between Roger de Bromkescom & Juliana his wife, plaintiffs, and the Abbot of Forde, defendant, regarding the manor of Lington... "Whether Wearesins de Pileton [Walter de Piriton, Archdeacon of Exeter, d.30 April 1157?[7]], uncle of Juliana, wife of Roger de Brumkescumbe, died seised of the manor of Lington, held by the Abbot of Forde"... is adjourned to the fortnight after St.Michael at Westminster, because the said abbot has produced the charter of King John by which the said king forbids the abbot or monks of Forde to be impleaded for any of their tenements, except before the Lord King or his Chief Justice.'[8][there was a manor called Pyleton in Pinhoe ("Pynhoo")][9]


In the medieval period, there are some 15,000 manors in England.


`from the thirteenth century onwards, justices were sent (normally in pairs) from the central courts at Westminster on circuits which together covered all the counties of England except London, Middlesex, and the palatinates. originally, their function was to try certain types of property litigation under provisions "assizes" of Henry II, but they soon acquired other functions. The courts of King's Bench, Common Pleas, and to a lesser extent, Exchequer, gradually came to issue writs undertaking to try cases at Westminster unless they had previously (nisi prius) been heard - as they invariably were - by the assize justices in the relevant county. More importantly, the assize justices were also commissioned to hear and try criminal cases arising at their own sessions, or transferred from the justices of the peace at quarter sessions, or in the course of `delivering' county gaols of prisoners on remand.'[10]



Julianna, niece of Werres, married to Roger de Branscombe. (EBMI)


The episcopal registers of Bishop Brantyngham of Exeter (1370-1394) refer to a church at Pyleton/Pillaton. Reference is also made to Clyst, and the manor of Haldone.[11]


`Apparently, Branscombe was the place of origin of the Bonvil family, for on 12 March 1219, Godfrey de Burdvill/Bolevyle/Bonevill?, in consideration of 6 marks to hand and 1 mark to be paid annually, granted 2 virgates of land there to the Chapter of Exeter, owners of the manor.'[12]



Emergence of first Thai kingdom.


acted outside churchesBeverley Minster: one of the first mentions of theatre outside a church in England.


Possible year of birth of Walter Bronescombe, Exeter or Edge Barton? The Dictionary of National Biography - Missing Persons (1993), plumps for Exeter, and points out he was often referred to as Walter de Exonia. However they do concede his surname is probably derived from the village. On the question of his parentage, they opt for `nothing is known'. They conjecture he was probably educated at Oxford.[13][cf:1243] [poss son of Roger & Juliana of Branscombe? cf:Walter de Piriton, Archdeacon of Exeter, d.30 April 1157?, uncle of Juliana]























Thomas de Cyrencestria is Sheriff of Devon. [to 1232][14]











Mongols invade Russia, Bohemia, Poland and Hungary. (to 1241)



According to Hoskins, this year sees the first reference to the manor of Escot, Talaton.[15] [cf:1249/1353 Richard Branscombe/1688 Sir Walter /1808 destroyed by fire]



8 July, Devon Feet of Fines, Exeter: Before William de Eboraco, Robert de Bello Campo, William de Sancto (Ramundo?) and Jordan Oliver, justices itinerant, and other liegemen of our lord the King ... Richard de la Hole and his wife Joan in dispute with tenant Richard de Langeford over the ownership of a half hide of land at Borcombe [Southleigh]. Richard & Joan acknowledge it was the right of Langeford & his heirs forever. Rendering therefore yearly one pair of white gloves ... and doing the service of 1/30th knight's fee for all service. In return, Richard de Langford gave and granted to Richard and Joan half a ferling and three acres belonging to Langeford, at "Wabbewell" [Wabble], in the manor of Braunkescumbe, which land Roger de Sege formerly held.[16][Could Roger de Sege also be Roger de Branscombe, husband of Juliana? cf:1218. It was evidently not unusual, at this time of proto-surnames, for new lords of the manor to adopt the locality name as a surname, or even to be known by two or three different surnames, depending on the circumstances in which they were to be used. cf:1279 la Sege]









`At some date before 1242 a Exetercustumal [`A written collection or abstracts of the customs of a manor, city, province, etc.'O.E.D.] of the city of was compiled, which has in part survived, giving an account, unfortunately incomplete, of the economic privileges of the freemen. This can be supplemented from slightly later evidence in the mayor's Exetercourt rolls of actions against those who infringed these rights. In addition from the general exemption from tolls throughout the country conferred by the Exetercity charters, the freemen enjoyed an absolute monopoly of Exetertrade in certain articles, and of retail trade in others. The basic principle seems to have been, as it was in the sixteenth century, that they had a complete monopoly of retail selling, except for the trade in victuals on the three market days, Monday, Wednesday and Friday, which was open to outsiders. In the terms used by the court rolls those unfree might not sell merchandise `by weight', or `by measure'.'



Walter Bronescombe, aged about 23, having studied, probably at Oxford, obtains his first benefice, Coningsbury [Coningsby], Lincolnshire, in commendam.[17][cf:1245]



Bishop bishopsLincolnGrosseteste of Lincoln attacks `ludos quod vocant miracula', miracle plays. [Is this Walter Branscombe's boss? cf:1243]



Walter Bronescombe appointed Chancellor of churchesSt.Peter's, Exeter, probably having been attached to the familia of William de Raleigh, Bishop of Winchester.[18]By this year he was also Archdeacon of Surrey, being witness to a deed dated April 16, relating to the rectory of , when he was by that title constituted the King's Proctor at Rome. `Between 1245 and 1257 he obtained dispensations to hold several benefices in plurality, which included the rectory of Farnham, annexed to the archdeaconry of Surrey, the rectory of East Clandon in Surrey, the chapel of Bloxworth in Dorset, and a prebend in the King's Free Chapel of St.Nicholas at Wallingford Castle. During the same period, he clearly became involved in royal service ...'[19]


The new Pope calls an emergency meeting at Lyons, to discuss the threat of a Mongol invasion. [did Walter attend?] An emissary is sent to the court of the Khan with a message suggesting the Mongol emperor should be baptised, and submit to Rome's authority. The journey was a remarkable one, as information in the western Christian empire about the East was scanty and owed more to fable than fact. The messenger cleric kept a diary, as he was charged with finding out as much as he could about the enemy, as well as delivering the letter. One surprising discovery was that a community of Christians existed, at the heart of the Mongol empire - Nestorians, who still worshipped in the language supposedly spoken by Jesus. It took the Pope's envoy two years to make the round trip. The Khan's reply, still held in the Vatican library, is dismissive, and warns of conquest by force, if the Pope does not surrender his empire, and pay homage to the Mongol emperor.







First mention of Ralph de la in connection with Branscombe- villageHole House? [cf: Randolph de la Hole, below]


The subject of sanctuary and sanctuary-seekers throws a vivid light on the laws and life of the county in medieval times, and draws individual members of the community into that light, who perhaps otherwise would otherwise have spanned their allotted years in permanently total obscurity.


`There were two classes of sanctuary; firstly, the sanctuary rights for a limited period of forty days, which belonged to every consecrated church and chapel with their graveyards; and secondly, the chartered sanctuary with rights for a lifetime, whose limits extended about a mile and a half from the church; these were granted by kings to certain specially favoured abbeys and minsters. St.John of Beverely, St.Cuthbert of Durham and Westminster Abbey were some of the greater sanctuaries of England. Devon possessed no chartered sanctuary, but Cornwall had two; one at the Collegiate Church of St.Buryan, the other at Padstow, both granted by Athelstan. The boundaries of the church frith were generally marked by crosses, and one or two of these still remain at St.Buryan.


There were heavy penalties for the violation of sanctuaries, increasing as the distance from the centre lessened. In addition to these, the Cistercians claimed the privilege of not turning away a felon from the doors of their abbeys, although this was not exercised to any great extent. The privilege of sanctuary in churches did not extend to those who had committed sacrilege, or who were atheists. In the reign of Henry VIII, the sanctuaries suffered great curtailment of their priveleges, and in 1623 the right was abolished for criminals.


The right of sanctuary was very early recognized and well known in Roman times, being based on the religious fact of the inviolability of sacred places. The Roman law recognised the the use of Christian churches as sanctuaries, about the beginning of the fourth century, whilst in England, the first mention of this right is in the laws of Ethelbert in A.D. 597. The name Sanctuary still applies to the east end of the chancel, which contains the high altar; and in many of our Western parishes, there is a field or fields attached to the church called the Sanctuary, often corrupted into sentry.


Criminals taking sanctuary were not to fly with any kind of arms into a church or its precincts, and whilst the Church was bound to provide food for a fugitive, the watching to prevent an escape was thrown on the township, which was fined if this happened.


Before the statutory forty days of sanctuary expired, the criminal had either to abjure the realm on oath before the coroner, or surrender himself for trial if the prosecutor could not be pacified. The fugitive had a port allotted him, which he had to reach within a certain period, and take the first ship abroad. He was clad in sack cloth and carried a cross in his hand. He was allowed to leave the King's highway for a short distance under great necessity, or for sleep and food, but if he left it permanently, or returned to the kingdom, he was liable to be slain ... The right of sanctuary under the protection of the Church softened the harsh penalties of the English law. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, hanging was the almost invariable punishment for all offences, even in such matters as theft of the value of a few pence. Sanctuary substituted transportation for life for capital punishment.


The value of the fugitive's possessions was forfeit to the king. On the Exeter Pleas of the Crown Roll 1248-9, there are 15 cases. One concerned Branscombe.


Although medieval gaols had thick walls and heavily barred windows, whilst the prisoners were ironed, escapes after capture were frequent, not only when shut up in the gaol, but also when being taken there, probably in many cases by the connivance of their guard ... in many cases the fugitives avoided sanctuaries near at hand, and fled to more distant churches; the reason for this is that the townships and their officials were fined if they allowed a criminal to escape. Warning was given, probably by the sounding of a horn, and all would be on the alert to intercept the culprit as he fled to the church; the fear of this led sanctuary seekers, therefore, to choose a more distant refuge. Again, churches at or near a port were more favourably situated for embarkation, and were therefore frequently selected.


`Adam, the Miller of Branscombe, William and Richard his sons, and Matilda his wife, slew Stephen de la Done [Dene?], in the township of Branscombe, and Richard was arrested, and put in the prison of Branscombe, and thence escaped; therefore there is judgement on that township. Afterwards it was testified that no one prevented the escape; there must be further inquiry into this matter; he was not in any township.


And Adam and the others fled to the Church of Branscombe, confessed their crime, and abjured the realm before the coroner. Adam's chattels, 12s 7d, for which the township will answer, the others had none. And they were in the tithing of Branscombe; therefore it is in mercy.


And Randolph de la Hole, constable of Honiton, Baroke, the son of Wallis Blakebone, Miles Mogge, John Frelling and Richard Boye, accused of the aforesaid death came and defended, and put themselves on their country for good or evil [that is, they elected to leave the case to a jury].


And the twelve jurymen from the four neighbouring townships say on their sacred oaths that Randolph and the others are not guilty; therefore they are quit. And they present that the aforesaid Adam and others killed Stephen, and they were not arrested; therefore the township is in mercy.


Afterwards, Randolph and the others came et finem fecerunt pro 20s for sureties, Alexander Judde, Walstel Blakebone, John de Chenelston, and Walter de Edem.'[20]



According to Hoskins this year produced the first written record of Branscombe- villageHole House.


`The home of the Holcombe family for seven generations until the seventeenth century, when it passed to the Bartlett family'[21]


`Talaton: The manor of Estcote,Talaton (). Domina Lucia de a widow, dwelled in this place in 1249, and was succeeded by Baldwyn de her son. The land was afterwards possessed by the Beauchamp- of Rym family...'


[cf:1227/1353 Richard Branscombe/1688 Sir Walter /1808 destroyed by fire]



23 August: Walter Bronescombe granted a papal licence to hold the chapel of Bloxworth, Dorset, in commendam.[22]


Walter Branscombe acts for Henry III at a papal curia securing confirmation of the highly controversial election to the bishopric of Winchester of Aymer de Valence, the King's half-brother. Walter is by now styled Papal Chaplain and King's Clerk, indicating he is favoured by both the King and the Pope.[23]


Approximate year the monks of built Great Coxwell tithe barn.


By the middle of the 13th century, public baths had been re-introduced to the main cities of Europe, due to the influence of returning Crusaders. They were built on the pattern, including hot steam baths. They were patronised by both sexes, as social clubs. [24](cf:1546)


Countess weir, , is built. Before this, the river brought trade and traffic with the tide to the quays below the ancient city walls. After its construction, the Exeterold Roman port of Topsham became the highest navigable point.


`Countess Wear takes its name from Isabella de Fortibus, Countess of Devon, who built it: her grievances against the citizens of Exeter included non-payment of her bailiff's tithes of fish ... after nearly 300 years of litigation Exeter got a canal, and the quayside renewed its activity.'[25]


`At first, the capital of [the Hanseatic] commercial world was Visby on the island of Gotland, in the eastern Baltic: here, mercantile records were kept, and silver money was coined that was so trustworthy that it was named after the common name for the Hanseatic traders, Osterling silver, later just Sterling.'[26]


The population of Branscombe is probably about 100.[27]



8 November, Gloucester: `Liberate to Master Walter [], Archdeacon of Surrey, departing on the king's errand to the court of Rome, 20 of the king's gift.'[28]He has been appointed the King's Proctor at the papal curia ...'[29]



23 January: Walter Bronescombe granted papal licence to hold the rectory of Clandon Abbots, Surrey.[30]


17 February, LondonWestminster: `Allocate to Reynold de [Keeper of the Bishopric of Winchester], three monks of Winchester, and the Archdeacon of Surrey [Walter Branscombe], going on the king's errand to Lyons.'[31]


20 June, Winchester: `40 marks paid of the king's gift to Master Walter [Branscombe], Archdeacon of Surrey, for his expenses in going to Lyons.'[32]





Walter Branscombe is a Canon of Exeter Cathedral by this date. Soon after, he has become Chancellor.[33]


A canon was a clergyman (including clerks in minor orders) living with others in a clergy-house or (in later times) in one of the houses within the precinct or close of a cathedral or collegiate church, and ordering his life according to the canons, or rules of the church. This practice of the canonical life began to prevail in the eighth century. In the eleventh century it was, in some churches, reformed by adoption of a rule (based upon a practice maentioned by St.Augustine) that clergymen so living together should renounce private property: those who embraced this rule were known as Augustinian or regular, the others were secular canons. (OED)



Latin liturgical plays at York



18 August, Woodstock: `To the sheriff of Kent. Contrabreve to find transport at Dover with all speed on view hereof, paying for it out of the farm of the county, for Master W. [Walter Branscombe], Archdeacon of Surrey, and Drew de whom the king is appointing for his errand beyond the seas.'[34]

The Liberate Rolls of the reign of monarchsHenry III are enrolments of mandates to royal officials and servants concerning expenditure and accounting on an infinite variety of subjects from diplomacy to purely domestic matters... the King's gifts and pensions to retired employees, the price of shoes to be distributed to the poor, and improvements to the plumbing of royal residences... from works at churchesWestminster Abbey and Castle, to monarchsHenry III's continued preference for green paint with gold or silver stars as interior decoration, and the prudent order that his elephant house at the Tower of should be built in such a way that if necessary it could be turned to other purposes.[35]


9 November: Walter Bronescombe granted letters of protection as King's Proctor at the Roman Curia.[36]



July: Walter Bronesombe is canon of the king's free chapel in Wallingford Castle and prebendary of Chalgrove, Oxon..[37]


26 December, Bishop's Palace, Exeter: Richard bishopsExeterBlondy, Bishop of Exeter, dies.


`This bishop, (says Hooker) tho' of a meek and gentle disposition, did nevertheless strenuously oppose everyone who offered any injury to the church. But waxing in years, and being a weak man, he was much led by some of his officers who were frequently about him, and who, taking advantage of his weakness and the opportunities they had, used all the means they might to enrich themselves.


His chiefest officers were one Lodeswell, his chancellor, , his register (Registrar?), Fitzherbert, his official, and Ermestow, the keeper of his seal.


These, with others of the chief servants of his household, compacted among themselves that whilst the bishop was yet living (who then lay sick and very weak in his bed), to make conveyances unto themselves as such livelihoods as then lay in the bishop's disposal. Accordingly, they made out advowsons, and such other conveyances as to them seemed best. All were forthwith sealed and delivered, according to the agreement made between them. But these their subtle dealings being discovered by the next bishop [Branscombe], he not only reversed all that they had thus clandestinely done, but also excommunicated them. Nor were they absolved until they did open penance for the same in cathedral church.'



23 February: Walter Branscombe elected Bishop of Exeter, apparently undisputed.[38]


3 March: Royal assent given to Walter's election.[39]


Saturday, 9 March, Canterbury Cathedral: Walter Branscombe is ordained priest by the Queen's uncle, Primate Boniface. `... with Simon de Walton, elect of Norwich, and Roger de Longespee, elect of Coventry; and on the following day was consecrated to episcopacy by the primate, assisted by the Bishops of St.David's and Salisbury.'[40]


10 March: Along with the new bishops of Norwich and Coventry & Lichfield, Walter is ordained by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Boniface of Savoy.[41][later Pope Boniface?]


14 April: Walter de Bronescombe enthroned as twelfth Bishop of Exeter (to 1280).


The election, confirmation and consecration of Walter were all in the months of February and March, according to Le Neve. Walter was a native of Exeter, of very mean parentage [?]. His preferments, before this advancement, were the chancellorship of this [St.Peter's] church in 1245, in which year also he appears to have been Archdeacon of Surrey, being witness to a deed dated April 16, relating to the rectory of , when he was by that title constituted the king's proctor at Rome. He died, July 22, 1280, according to his epitaph, and was buried in the south part of the lady's chapel, under an arch, `having a fair tomb of alabaster over him'. He gained the title "Walter the Good".


`Walter ... was born at Edge or Egge, according to J. Charles Cox, in the Reliquary & Illustrated Archaeologist, 1909.'[42]


`Walter Bronescombe, a native of Exeter who, though but in deacon's orders, had for nearly the last six years been Archdeacon of Surrey, was unanimously selected to fill the vacant see.'[43]


`Patre natus Exoniensi cive, sed tennuissimae sortis & ex plebe infima.' `A native of Exeter, and born of mean parentage.' - Godwn de praes., in Episc. Exon..[44]



`In common with most bishops of the thirteenth century, especially those with university training, [Walter] did not combine his ecclesiastical duties with a high office of state. Even so, he continued in royal service, acting from time to time as royal negotiator and advisor, notably at times of crisis. He gives the strong impression of having been practical and conciliatory, a man who inspired confidence in those with whom he had dealings.'[45]


`The English Church, or Ecclesia Anglicana, was part of the universal Church of western Christendom. Yet it was also part of the English State. Its bishops and abbots were not only fathers in God but feudal magnates, leaders of the local community and royal advisors. A bishop was a great territorial magnate, enjoying the revenues of various manors and knights' fees, who wore princely attire and lived in state. His income of two or three thousand pounds a year was fabulous compared with the yearly wage of forty or fifty shillings earned by a shepherd or ploughman. The Bishop of Durham's castle above the Wear was the greatest fortress in the north; the Bishop of Exeter had nine residences in Devon alone and, like every other prelate, a mansion in London from which to perform his duties as a peer of the realm, and attend meetings of parliament and the royal council. When a bishop travelled, it was on horse-back, or in a litter with a retinue of thirty or forty mounted clerics and attendants, including knights and men-at-arms drawn from his tenantry to guard him.'[46]


` Walter Bronescombe's library consisted of an Antiphonary and Psalter (for use in the chapel), one part of the Pentateuch with commentary, and a volume containing five works: the Pantheon of Godfrey de Viterbo, the Decretals with apparatus, a book about animals, a work by Avicenna, the Moslem physician, and a tract on military science by Vegetius.'[47]


Walter's arms, as seen on his tomb, are the same as those used by Richard Branscombe, Sheriff of Devon, in the fourteenth century. His motto: Patientia Vincit.[48]


28 April: Great Council of barons and King monarchsHenry III, at ("parliament"). The Provisions of Oxford stipulated all foreign favourites of the king are to be expelled from the kingdom. It also established a body to examine grievances, and provided for the summoning of the Oxford parliament.


`In the years after 1258, a baronial opposition to the king, under Simon de attempted to fetter Henry and establish a new system of government.'[49][Montfort was eventually defeated by Prince at battlesEvesham, in 1265]


July: Walter Branscombe is in Paris on the King's business.[50][cf:1263]


September: Walter Branscombe attends the consecration of the new Cathedral of Salisbury.[51]


`In , the native Britons were able to live side-by-side in an independent community with the Saxons, after the collapse of Roman Britain, and the invasions from the fifth century. They occupied their own quarter of the city, which was known as Britayne as late as the thirteenth century. Their language remained , although they were bi-lingual'. [52][The Saxons lived in the southern part of the city]


The Mongols sack Baghdad


Before 1258 Branscombe did service at the hundred court of Colyton by sending 21 men, but this service was reduced to 5 men on 3 lawdays only by agreement with Lawrence de Saunford on 13 October 1258. (Devon Fine #614)'



4 February: Walter Bronescombe was granted papal faculty to retain for one year the fruits of all benefices held by him at the time of his promotion, for the payment of debts incurred by his predecessors.[53]


6 February: Walter Bronescombe visits churchesSt.Winifred's, Branscombe (and Edge Barton?).[54]


20 February, LondonWestminster: `Liberate to W. [Branscombe], Bishop of Exeter, 100 marks for his recent expenses in going on the king's errand to the King of Almain in the parts of Almain by command of the King and by counsel of the magnates of the King's Council.'[55]

`(the church of churchesSt.Mary, Totnes) has the serenity of all places mellowed by age and long use. To its north-east once stood the ancient priory church, with which in 1259 it was united and consecrated by Bishop Bronescombe, that good man who is said to have resisted temptation by the Devil on the moor.


According to the legend, bread and cheese were offered him to appease his hunger in return for his soul and the rejected food may still be seen, turned to stone, in the shape of those rocks near Gorge known as Bronescombe's Bread and Cheese.' [56]


Walter; [Bronescombe], Bishop of Exeter, consecrates the Church of churchesSt.Mary of Ottery. [Ottery St.Mary?]


King Henry grants Walter [Bronescombe] a market day at Penhrin.


May: Probable death of Matthew Paris, monk, scribe and historian of St.Albans. [cf:1217]



Approximate date that Walter Bronescombe begins extending Exeter cathedral. `The first in a famous line of "building bishops"'.


`Bishop Bronscombe, hero of the loaf-and-cheese legend, sanctioned burial at Widecombe, as an alternative to . Previously, Lydford was the only consecrated ground for the vast parish of Dartmoor.' [57]



Greek empire restored in Constantinople.


23 October: Bishop Walter Bronescombe pays his first recorded visit to Bishopsteignton.[58]





Walter Branscombe [aged about 43] is one of the King's proctors at the French royal court. `In these years, he was one of the few markedly royalist bishops among a generally Montfortian episcopate ... Between 1263 and 1265 he was much involved in treating for peace at home between the King and his barons.'[59][cf:1266]



28 February: Walter Bronescombe visits churches(Edge Barton and?) St.Winifred's, Branscombe, to hold an ordination service. `There is reason to believe that, physically, he was not a robust man. As early as 1264, we find him excusing his non-attendance at the Parliament held that year in St.Albans, on the ground of bodily weakness and ill-health ...'[60]


Simon de defeats royalists at the Battle of Lewes;.



Lord defeats forces of Simon de Montfort at battlesEvesham. Simon mortally wounded. The Dictum of Kenilworth [1266] settles the differences between the King and his barons.


`That [Walter Branscombe, Bishop of Exeter] was distinguished for circumspection and integrity of conduct may be inferred from having steered with such safety and honour through the perilous and furious contests between the King and his barons. And when the power of the latter was beaten down by the decisive action fought at Evesham on 4th August, 1265, the name of [Walter] stands the first on the committee of the twelve bishops and barons appointed to arrange and settle differences.'[61]



31 October: The Dictum of Kenilworth. Walter Bronescombe is one of the committee of six who, having co-opted a further six, devised the settlement between the King and his barons.[62]



`Following the peace with the Welsh at Montgomery, Lord hands over most of his estates in Wales to his brother Edmund.' [63]





Laurence de appointed vicar of churchesSt.Winifred's, Branscombe, by Walter Bronescombe (to 1283).


`John Chubb,John, Abbot of Tavistock, was deposed in 1269 by Bishop Bronescombe of Exeter (1258-1280);, after he had begun an action at law, with every prospect of success, against the bishop's steward. Chubb was in financial difficulties, and at odds with some of his monks but Bronescombe's minions had been plundering the abbey right and left. An abbot who put his bishop in the wrong could expect no quarter.' [64]


Writs and orders under the Great Seal addressed by the Sovereign to individuals were folded or closed up, and are hence called "letters close". Until Tudor times, the Close Rolls contain royal instructions for the performance of multifarious acts: the observance of treaties, the levying of subsidies, the repair of buildings, the payment of salaries, the provision of Household requirements, the delivery of their landed inheritances to heirs, and the assignment of dower to widows, and so forth. private deeds enrolled for safe custody on the back of the Close Rolls are especially numerous from 1382, and from 1532-3 such deeds form the entire contents of the roll. P.R.O., London



Alan Dagville of Bovey, descendent of Guy Dagville [cf:1160], marries Amisia, daughter of John Walrond of Bradfield. On her death, Bovey House passes to the Walrond family.[65]


Walter Branscombe obtains from the crown a market and fair for Bishopsteignton.[66]


Sir John Holcombe of Hole died of wounds received in the second Crusade. Buried in Dorchester Abbey (nr. Oxford), his is one of the finest remaining Crusader tombs. He married Isabella Downe of Downe Rouse (now Rousden), a direct descendent of King Henry I, and a great heiress. [Walter, Sir John's father, dies in 1300]





16 November: Reign of King monarchsHenry III ends (since 1216). monarchsEdward I ascends the throne (to 1307).


`The law and order imposed by Edward encouraged the nobility to build more comfortable houses, and abandon the utilitarian castles of their forebears.'


`Edward I conquers Wales, and builds Caernarvon castle in conciously imperial style.' [67]


`Edward's reign was marked by military conquest and legislative progress; the king was always reluctant to compromise with his opponents, but the reign was one of positive political achievement. The community of the realm found a new focus in the developing institution of , and the country gained a much-needed unity, after the troubles of monarchsHenry III's reign.' [68]


`Edward was an unusual name in thirteenth-century England. In a country where the aristocracy was largely -speaking, English names were not fashionable. [69]


`Edward was in Sicily late in 1272, when he learned that he had become king. Sicily was used as a staging-post for his voyage to and from the Holy Land, on . At 33, the eldest son of monarchsHenry III and of Provence was a man of considerable, if chequered, experience.[70]


11 December: Walter Bronescombe transfers to the new Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Kilwardby, the spiritualities of the see [of Exeter?] and on the following day was the only bishop recorded as being present in London at an important declaration concerning royal rights in respect of this papal provision of Kilwardby.[71]



May: Walter Branscombe and the bishop of Winchester present the new Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Kilwardby, with his pallium. Then, with his old friend Godfrey Gifford, Bishop of Worcester, Walter travels to (Paris/Burgundy?) to meet Prince Edward on his return from a crusade in the Holy Land, to take up the kingship on the death of Henry III.[72]Walter rejoins Edward in Gascony in the Autumn.[73]



May-July: Walter Branscombe, Bishop of Exeter, attends the fourteenth General Council, in Lyons.[74]`The last six years of his life, after his return from the Council of Lyons, were spent in his diocese, save for occasional short visits to London and to his manor houses in Hampshire and Surrey.'[75]


August: `Edward returns to England from crusade. He embarks on the conquest of Wales, and the introduction of major legislative changes.'[76]


19 August: Edward's coronation at LondonWestminster: `One story has it that at the banquet which followed the ceremony in churchesWestminster Abbey, five hundred horses were turned loose, to be kept by anyone who managed to catch them. This was a celebration by young men - by a new generation filled with confidence - and the story may well be true. The festivities were not limited to the nobles at the feast; the citizens of London were able to drink red and white wine flowing from the public drinking fountain in LondonCheapside.'[77]Walter Bronescombe has returned to London from Lyons for the coronation. `Scarcely any evidence survives to shed light on his particular role during these various activities, but he was clearly a staunch and respected supporter of both Henry III and his son Edward. His diocesan work can be studied in much more detail, for his register is the first extant episcopal register for the diocese of Exeter and probably in fact the first to be compiled. It reveals a vigorous and concientious bishop, active in visiting and often rededicating the churches of his large diocese. He restored and augmented the collegiate church of Crediton and founded another college at Glasney, near Penryn.'[78][cf:1275]


Farringdon: Bishop's Clyst, in this parish, used to be called Clyst Sachvill (Sackville). It had that name until about the beginning of the reign of monarchsEdward I. Sir Ralph knight, borrowed moneys of Walter Brounscomb, Bishop of Exeter, to furnish himself for his journey into France, in the king's service. He mortgaged his lands for the bishop's assurance, to be repaid plus all the bishop's costs in maintenance, etc..


But (in his absence) the bishop bestowed so much cost in building and other ways that the poor knight, on returning home, and bringing the money borrowed ... the bishop's account for expenses was so high, it amounted to more than the land was worth.


By this means, it became one of the seats and dwelling-houses of the bishops of Exeter. But as Brounscomb cunningly got it, did Bishop bishopsExeterVoisey wastefully lose it.' [79]


`At Clyst [Walter] re-built the convenient manor-house [and dedicated a chantry chapel][80]with its gateway bearing the appropriate motto: Janua patet:Cor magis, which became the favourite residence of his successors.'[81][Farringdon was also the name of a manor owned by Walter near Alton, Hampshire][82]


`In October, a massive inquiry was set up to investigate local cover the activities of all local officials, from sheriffs to castle constables. The results of the massive enquiries, produced by interrogating local juries, were recorded on what are now known as the Hundred Rolls. So extensive is the evidence that they provide, no succinct summary is possible. No government since the making of the Book had been provided with so massive a dossier. The evidence that it gave of individual corruption and general mis-government was alarming. When the returns had come in, the first Statute of statutesWestminster was drafted, in 1275.'[83]



An earthquake destroys the twelfth century priory on churchesSt.Michael's Mount, Cornwall.


Marco Polo reaches China.


24 November, Bayonne: Walter Branscombe, Bishop of Exeter, baptises Alphonsus, son of Edward I and Queen Eleanora. The child is named after his godfather, the King of Spain. He died on 19 August, 1284, aged 10, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.[84]`In 1268 and again in 1275 [Walter] undertook the revision and amendment of the statutes of his cathedral church.'[85]


`In Parliament, Edward negotiates a customs duty on wool and leather exports, at the rate of 6s.8d. on each sack of wool. At a second parliament in this year, he obtained the grant of a tax: everyone was to pay a fifteenth of a valuation on their moveable property. With a yield approaching 80,000, this tax did much to remedy the king's financial problems.'[86]







`A sale is recorded of a messuage [large house] and one ploughland at Celer, the salinaria or salt-pans of , for the large sum of 100 marks.'[87]


`Edward orders justices to enquire into the question of the alleged usurpation of royal rights by magnates, by means of legal actions known as quo warranto.' [88]


`The king's courts had been, and were to remain, the scene of suits by the king against his subjects. The crown was a great property-holder, the greatest in the realm, and like any other property-holder, it often had to sue at law to establish claims. Much of the work of the royal administration, of the Exchequer in particular, was to keep systematic watch over the crown's property, and defend it from encroachments... In the reign of monarchsEdward I, royal attorneys were making especially frequent use of the action-form quo warranto... they brought into court a great flood of these writs, which for its volume alone was never equalled in any other reign, before or after.'[89]


By 1278, bishop Walter Branscombe's health was in decline, and he had already prepared St.Gabriel's Chapel, at the south-east end of his cathedral, for his place of interment. [St.Gabriel was his patron saint] He appoints proctors in all causes between Edmund, Earl of Cornwall and himself, on account of failing health.[90][There was a long-running and bitter dispute between Walter and the Earl about their respective rights]



Statute of statutesMortmain. Forbids grants of land to the Church. An act of retaliation by the king against provocation by the new Archbishop of Canterbury, John bishopsCanterburyPecham.


The Fabric Accounts of Exeter Cathedral 1279-1326 give financial details of the construction work in progress. Salcombe stone was used in part, and the records show some of it was delivered by road, while some went by barge via an unidentified place, la Sege.[91][cf:1238, Roger de Sege of Branscombe]



June, London: Bishop Walter Branscombe, in ill health, leaves for Devon, reaching Bishop's Clyst by the end of the month. He then proceeded to his manor-court at Chudleigh. After a short interval, he moved to his residence at Bishopsteignton.[92]


20 July, Exeter: Walter Bronescombe ordains the chantry chapel of St.Gabriel where he is subsequently buried.[93]


22 July: Walter de Bronescombe, Bishop of Exeter, dies at Teignton, possibly Bishopsteignton. Peter bishopsExeterQuivil succeeds (to 1291).


The register of Bishop Bronescombe shows that he was present at Bishopsteignton for a few days in each of the years 1261, 1264, 1272, and 1275-80. According to Hingeston-Randolph, he died at `his house at Radway' (the site of the present palace ruins) on 22 July, 1280. No evidence is offered to support this statement however, and the final entries in the original register say simply that he was `apud Teynton', i.e. at (Bishops) Teignton, at the time of his death. [94]


His last official act as bishop, signed on the very day he died, was to institute William de Guldeford to the rectory of Knowstone.[95][cf:1327, Wadham family]



Olim sincerus pater This sincere father
Omni dignus amore Worthy of love so high
Primus Walterus Walter the First
Magno jacet hic in honore Doth here in honour lie
Editit hic plura He wholesome laws did
dignissima lande statuta; for his church indite;
Quae tanquam jura That all things safe might
servant hic omnia data. keep in peace and right.

Atq; hoc collegium quod Fair Glaseney College,
Glasney plebs vocat omnis as 'tis called, he founded,
Candidit egregium, Warn'd thereunto, by a voice
pro voce datur sibi somnis in his sleep, that sounded

Quot loca construxit? What buildings he?
Pietatis quot bona fecit? What pious works did raise?
Quam sanctum duxit vitam? How holy too? What tongue
Vox dicere quae scit? can speak his praise?
Laudibus immensis On this her high renown
Jubilet gens exoniensis May
Exeter glory
Et chorus & turbae In her was born the man
Quod natus in hac fuit urbe. So great in story.

Plus si scire velis Would you like to know more?
Festum Statuit Gabrielis: He made to Gabriel (Heavens
Gandeat in caelis igitur bless his pious soul!)
Pater iste fidelis. A festival.


Walter's tomb features an effigy in black stone, said to be basalt, painted ... `an outstanding work, probably of London craftsmanship ... the carving of the face is exceptionally sensitive.'[97]


10 November, Canterbury Cathedral: Peter Quivil, son of Peter and Helewisa Quivil of Exeter, is consecrated Bishop of Exeter by Archbishop Peckham. He is the third Exonian in succession to become Bishop. In early life, he had found a friend and patron in Bishop Branscombe who ... [on 28 December 1276] collated him to the canonry and prebend of Exeter Cathedral, void by the death of Henry Mountfort.[98]



21 January, Bishopsteignton: Will of Walter Branscombe proved.[99][does this exist?]


24 February, Exeter: Will of Walter Branscombe executed.[100]



The Revolt. Concerted attacks made on English-held castles throughout Wales. The English were quick to respond; plans were made at a council in Devizes, in April, and troops were assembling in May. (the revolt was put down by 1283)


`Wales had remained a Celtic stronghold, although often within the English sphere of influence. However, with the death in battle in 1282 of Prince Llywelyn, Edward I launched a successful campaign to bring Wales under English rule.'[101]



1 July, Salop: Richard and Egidia Branscombe reach an agreement with Robert and Joan de Hase on ownership of land at Colyton.[102]


`On 1 July, Richard de Brankescumb & Egidia his wife, purchased Yardbury in Colyton for twenty marks, which on
8 May 1289, they exchanged for other lands at Colyton.'[103]

Sir Thomas becomes vicar of churchesSt.Winifred's, Branscombe (to 1318). `...presented a pair of organs to the church, and was praised by his flock to the bishop, because he preached well, and visited the sick.'


A subsidy of a thirtieth on moveable goods was agreed to in this year, and assessed at over 42,000 (helped pay for the Welsh war, 1282-3)


`The repeated failure of a merchant to obtain his share of the profits of a partnership he had made with an English trader was the probable origin of the Statute of statutesActon Burnell, made in this year, which set up a new procedure for the recovery of debts.'[104]


`There was no fixed concept, under Edward, of what a statute was. Some were in , others in , and no authoritative record was produced of the statutes, as they were made.' [105]


Inquisitio post mortem 12 Edward I of John de Bello Campo. Mentions Cecily, his wife, and land owned at what was to be known as Merifield. These were the Beauchamps of Hatch. They had one son who died in 1362, without issue. They also had a daughter, Cecily, who became heir of Merifield. She married Roger Seymour and then Richard Turberville, who died in 1363. Cecily died at Merifield in 1394.[106]



The Statute of statutesWales. `Following the crushing of the revolt, (1282-3) the English system of administration was extended. The new counties of Flint, Anglesey, Merioneth and Caernarvon were created. For the rest, Wales remained a country of Marcher lordships, controlled by families such as the s, s, s and s.'[107]


19 August, Westminster Abbey: Alphonsus, son of Edward I and Queen Eleanora, baptised in Bayonne by Walter Branscombe in 1275, is buried.[108]



The writ Circumspecte Agatis defines the extent of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and permits the church courts to hear a wide range of cases.



Edward departs England for his Duchy of Gascony. (to 1289)



revolt. (Edward in Gascony)



According to the Cartulary of Canonsleigh, Richard de Branscombe, clerk, involved in a land transaction, owns lands at Northleigh.[109]


11 November, Northleigh: Quitclaim by Richard de Brankescumbe, clerk, to Nicholas de on behalf of himself and his heirs, of all the tenement which he held of Nicholas in the manor of Northleigh. [c.10kms north of Branscombe village]


Quitclaims: `Their actual function was to release or quitclaim the rights of the first party to the second party, and some concern the possible rights of someone who was not actually the property owner. Others are endorsed with livery of seizin, and were used as feoffments ... The feoffment continues the medieval tradition in which the actual transfer of property only took place through the ceremony of livery of seizin, in which a token part of the property, e.g. a key or a piece of turf, was handed over to the new owner in the presence of witnesses. The written deed merely confirmed the seizin.'[110]


`In the medieval period, witnesses were not random, but were chosen firstly from people of importance in the community, and secondly from near neighbours who could confirm the boundaries and details of the property. The final witness was usually the clerk or scribe to drew up the deed.'[111]



`On 1 July 1283, Richard de Brankescumb & Egidia his wife, purchased Yardbury in Colyton for twenty marks, which on 8 May 1289, they exchanged for other lands at Colyton.'[112]

Edward returns to England from Gascony, where he's been since 1286. He turns his attention to the Scottish problem.



`The statute of statutesQuia Emptores protects the interests of the great landowners, ensuring that if their feudal tenants dispose of some of their lands, the new holder would enter into the same feudal relationship with the lord as the former holder.'[113]


invented, in Italy.


Edward expels all from England. (cf:1656)


Edward begins his campaign to subjugate Scotland.


Calling of the "Model Parliament", a stage in the development of representative assemblies.


The vicarage of Branscombe church is settled. There is mention of a fine chapel at Edge.[114]

The rose window at Edge: `... 6'6" in diameter, but not quite entire, which can only be seen by climbing into an attic. It appears to date from the thirteenth century, was in the gable at the west end of the chapel, but was blocked up when a fireplace was inserted, long before 1772, and hidden from view when the chapel was connected to the hall wing. A portion of a gothic arch in the servery shows that the chapel was entered from the north side, but there is no evidence to show how far the building extended towards the east. Judging by the size of the rose window, and its hight, the chapel was, as Lysons' said, an unusually handsome one, which lands weight to the legend, so far unconfirmed, that at one time, possibly during Bishop Bronescombe's term of office, there was an establishment here.'[115]


Queen Eleanor of Castile, first wife of Edward I, dies at Horby, Nottinghamshire. `Edward ordered that the funeral procession to London should be a magnificent progress. A route was planned so that each night the coffin would rest at a place able to mount sufficient religious ceremony and civic pageant. Dunstable was one of the twelve selected places on a somewhat zig-zag route. Subsequent to the funeral, Edward, at no expense spared, had the twelve famous Eleanor Crosses erected, including one at Dunstable. Only Geddington, Hardingstone and Waltham crosses remain. The rest, including the one at Dunstable, were destroyed during the civil wars (The modern replica in the forecourt of Charing Cross station was put up by the directors of the Chatham and Dover Railway Company.) All other so-called Eleanor Crosses throughout the country are copies, or based on the "style of".'[116]







The Earldom of Devon, created 1101 by writ of the first Henry I, is extinguished on the death of Isabella de Fortibus, widow of the Earl of Albemarle and sister and heir of Baldwin de Redvers, eighth earl. Total: eight earls and one contess.[117]



Rising-extremely serious; had more the qualities of a popular rebellion.


`The extension to Wales of the English system of taxation in the early 1290's was probably the main cause.'[118]


[The rising was eventually put down by the defeat of the Welsh leader, , at battlesMaes Madog, in March 1295, by the Earl of .]



An agreement between Sir John de and the Prioress of , arising out of a dispute, gives Sir John and his heirs the right to present a nun to the priory, in perpetuity. [cf: branscombeMargaret Branscombe, 1347][119]


Richard de Brankescumbe is clerk to Gilbert de Knovill, Sheriff of Devon, 1296-1300.[120]


6 March, Clarendon
: Edward grants protection to Richard de Brankyscumbe.

Richard de Branscombe a vicar of the Church of the churchesHoly Cross, Crediton
. `One of the finest town churches in Devon; a splendid red sandstone building, with a tower strongly reminiscent of Exeter cathedral. When the see was removed to Exeter, the church was made a Collegiate, and was perhaps the first of its class in Devon, with its stately chancel, occupied by the stalls of 18 canons and 18 vicars.'[121]

`The bishops of Exeter had a palace and a great park at , of which there are now no traces.'[122]



Richard de Brankescumbe, clerk & deputy to Sheriff Gilbert de Knoville, Exeter. Richard, & Robert de Uppehaye represent the Sheriff at the Exchequer, a high office.[123]


Ottoman Turks begin expansion in Anatolia.


Richard de Branscombe made a Freeman of , at the instance of the mayor and community.


`The five names, Henry, John, Richard, Robert and William, together accounted for 38% of recorded men's names in the twelfth century; for 57% in the thirteenth; and for 64% in the fourteenth.'[124]

.Begin Index.

1996-2006 Ronald Branscombe

Email: genealogy (at) branscombe (dot) net



[1]Rowling, p.97

[2]F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The Register of Walter
, 1889.

[3]Calendar of Documents-France

[4]Jusserand, 1891, p.49

[5]Slader, The Churches of Devon, p.106

[6]Platt, p.114

[7]Morey, Bartholomew of Exeter..., p.117

[8]Devon & Cornwall Notes & Queries, Vol.20: Abstracts from
Devon Assize Rolls 1218-1219

[9]BMI says cf: Transactions of the Devonshire Assn. Vol 35,

[10]Notes on Assize records, PRO Kew

[11]Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The Register of Thomas de
, p.128

[12]Reichel, The Hundreds of Colyton & Clyston ...

[13]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[14]Devon County Records Office, Exeter

[15]Devon, 1972

[16]Reichel, Devon Feet of Fines Vol I, p.143

[17]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[18]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[19]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[20]Pleas of the Crown at Exeter, 33 Henry III, 1248-9,
quoted in: Sanctuary in Devon, H.Michell Whitley,
Proceedings of the
Devonshire Assn. 1913, p.302.

[21]Devon, 1972, p.344

[22]Emden, A Biographical Register of the University of
to A.D. 1500, Vol 1, p.279

[23]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[24]Rowling, p.109

[25]Which? Guide to the West Country, p.117

[26]Naish, Seamarks, p.26

[27]Elijah Chick, The Parish & Church of Branscombe, p.12

[28]Calendar of Liberate Rolls Vol.4, p.5

[29]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[30]Emden, A Biographical Register of the University of
to A.D. 1500, Vol 1, p.279

[31]Calendar of Liberate Rolls Vol.4, p.27

[32]Calendar of Liberate Rolls Vol.4, p.56

[33]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[34]Calendar of Liberate Rolls Vol.4, p.317

[35]Calendar of Liberate Rolls Vol.4, frontispiece

[36]Emden, A Biographical Register of the University of
to A.D. 1500, Vol 1, p.279

[37]Emden, A Biographical Register of the University of
to A.D. 1500, Vol 1, p.279

[38]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[39]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[40]Oliver, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter ..., p.40

[41]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[42]A Manor House Restored, H.Dalton Clifford, Country Life,
30 August 1962

[43]Oliver, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter ..., p.39

[44]Rees & Curtis, The Worthies of Devon, p.137

[45]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[46]Bryant, The Medieval Foundation, pp.250-51

[47]Moorman, Church Life in England in the Thirteenth
Century, p.182

[48]Izacke, Remarkable Antiquities ...

[49]Prestwich, The Three Edwards

[50]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[51]Bridget Cherry & Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of
England, Devon, ??

[52]Ross & Cyprien, A Traveller's Guide to
Celtic Britain
, p.53

[53]Emden, A Biographical Register of the University of
to A.D. 1500, Vol 1, p.279

[54]Elijah Chick, The Parish & Church of Branscombe, pp.24-25

[55]Calendar of Liberate Rolls Vol.4, p.452

[56]Gordon, Devonshire, 1950, p.109

[57]Gordon, Devonshire, 1950, p.109

[58]Transactions of the Devonshire Assn. Vol 42, p.505 (1910)

[59]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[60]F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The Register of Walter
, 1889, pp.xvi-xvii

[61]Oliver, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter ..., pp.40-41

[62]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[63]Prestwich, ibid., p.12

[64]Calendar of Close Rolls 1268-72, p.101 Calendar of
Miscellaneous Inquisitions, 1, p.129. (ibid., pp.210-11)

[65]Bovey House brochure, 1993

[66]F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The Register of Walter
, 1889, p.xvi

[67]Prestwich, ibid., p.1


[69]ibid., p.5

[70]ibid., p.6

[71]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[72]Oliver, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter ..., p.42

[73]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[74]Oliver, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter ..., p.42

[75]F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The Register of Walter
, 1889, pp.xvi-xvii

[76]ibid., p.5

[77]ibid., p.9

[78]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[79]Polwhele, 1793 (1977), vol.2, p.202

[80]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[81]Oliver, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter ..., p.41

[82]F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The Register of Walter
, 1889, p.viii

[83]Polwhele, 1793 (1977), vol.2, pp.9-10

[84]Oliver, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter ..., pp.42-3

[85]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[86]Polwhele, 1793 (1977), vol.2, p.10

[87]The Hundreds of Devon (Supplementary),
part VII: The Hundreds of Colyton & Clyston in Early
Times, Rev.Oswald J.Reichel.

[88]The Hundreds of Devon (Supplementary),
part VII: The Hundreds of Colyton & Clyston in Early
Times, Rev.Oswald J.Reichel, p.10

[89]Quo Warranto Proceedings in the Reign of Edward I
1278-1294, Donald Sutherland, OUP, 1963, pp.1-2

[90]F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The Register of Walter
, 1889, pp.xvi-xvii

[91]Sidmouth: A History, Sidmouth Museum, 1987, p.5

[92]Oliver, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter ..., p.45

[93]Nicholls (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography -
Missing Persons

[94]Laithwaite, Blaylock, Westcott, The Bishop's Palace at
Bishopsteignton, Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological
Society, #47, 1989.

[95]Transactions of the Devonshire Assn. Vol 42, p.505 (1910)

[96]Rees & Curtis, The Worthies of Devon, p.139

[97]Bridget Cherry & Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of
England, Devon, ??

[98]Oliver, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter ..., pp.46-7

[99]Transactions of the Devonshire Assn. Vol 42, p.505 (1910)

[100]Transactions of the Devonshire Assn. Vol 42, p.505 (1910)

[101]Britain 1993 ..., HMSO, p.2

[102]Reichel, Devon Feet of Fines, Vol II, p.30

[103]Reichel, The Hundreds of Colyton & Clyston, p.348

[104]Prestwich, p.20

[105]ibid., pp.19-20

[106]William Wynham, The Wadhams and Merifield, 1934, pp.2-3

[107]Prestwich, p.15

[108]Oliver, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter ..., p.43

[109]Devon & Cornwall Records, Vol.#2

[110]Alcock, Old Title Deeds, p.52

[111]Alcock, Old Title Deeds, p.12

[112]The Hundreds of Devon (Supplementary), part VII:
Reichel, The Hundreds of Colyton & Clyston, p.348

[113]Prestwich, p.20

[114]Transactions of the Devonshire Association,
Extra Volume,

[115]A Manor House Restored, H. Dalton Clifford,
Country Life
, 30 August, 1962

[116]Bulfield, The Icknield Way, pp.72-3

[117]Charles Worthy, The History of the Suburbs of Exeter,
Chapter 7, 1892

[118]Prestwich, p.17

[119]Two Registers Formerly Belonging to the Family of
Beauchamp of Hatch,
editor Sir H.C. Maxwell-Lyte,
Somerset Record Society Vol.XXXV,

[120]P.R.O. List & Indexes IX, HMSO, 1898

[121]Hoskins, Devon, p.379


[123]Devon & Cornwall N. Association 13, p.148


[124]P.H. Reaney, The Origin of English Surnames,
Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1991 (1967), p.130.
ISBN 0-415-05917-8